Metallizations Used in Semiconductor Manufacturing

     

Semiconductor devices employ metallizations primarily to serve as a means of electrical contact and interconnection within the die circuits. Thin-film aluminum is the most widely used metallization in semiconductor manufacturing because of its many desirable properties, but there are many other metals or alloys used for the same purpose.  Table 1 shows examples of such metals and alloys along with some of their properties.

      

The last column of Table 1 pertains to the critical temperature beyond which the metallization on silicon becomes unstable in one of several ways: further reaction with silicon, decomposition, agglomeration, or mechanical failure. These temperatures were determined either by experimentation or experience within the industry.

     

               

Table 1. Properties of Metallizations Used in Integrated Circuits

Metal/Alloy

Resistivity

(Ω-cm)

Melting Temp. (deg C)

CTE

(ppm/deg C)

Reaction Temp with Silicon

(deg C)

Max. Temp. Stable on Si

(deg C)

Al

2.7-3.0

660

-

~250

~250

M

6-15

2620

5

400-700

~400

W

6-15

3410

4.5

600-700

~600

MoSi2

40-100

1980

8.25

-

>1000

TaSi2

38-50

~2200

8.8-10.7

-

>=1000

TiSi2

13-16

1540

12.5

-

>=950

WSi2

30-70

2165

6.25-7.9

-

>=1000

CoSi2

10-18

1326

10.14

-

<=950

NiSi2

~50

993

12.06

-

<=850

PtSi

28-35

1229

-

-

<=750

Pt2Si

30-35

1398

-

-

<=700

HfN

30-100

~3000

-

450-500

450

ZrN

20-100

2980

-

450-500

450

TiN

40-150

2950

-

450-500

450

TaN

~200

3087

-

450-500

450

NbN

~50

2300

-

450-500

450

TiC

~100

3257

-

450-500

450

TaC

~100

3985

-

-

-

TiB2

6-10

-

-

>600

>600

                            

                                    

Reference: Sze, "VLSI Technology", McGraw Hill

     

Buy it now from Amazon.com: VLSI technology (McGraw-Hill series in electrical engineering)

       

LINKS:  MetallizationThin FilmsOhmic Contacts

  

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