Other Semiconductor Products
from these products on the
include the following.
are digital IC's that serve as an interface between the digital output
of one circuit and the digital input of another circuit for one reason
or another: 1) to 'gate' digital signals that share a common bus and
prevent data clashes; 2) to 'condition' a weak digital signal to the
correct digital voltage level; 3) to increase the fan-out of an output;
4) to transmit digital data between two digital circuits that employ
different voltage levels (e.g., CMOS vs. TTL); etc.
are comparator devices whose output exhibits hysteresis, i.e., the input
threshold level at which its output changes from 'low' to 'high' is
higher than the input threshold level at which its output changes from
'high' to 'low.' Due to these two different threshold levels of inputs at
which the output of a Schmitt trigger changes, rapid back-and-forth
output switching observed in an ordinary comparator circuit when its
input is very close to its single threshold is not observed in a Schmitt
trigger. A Schmitt trigger is therefore commonly used as an input
circuit that improves noise immunity.
are devices that convert an analog voltage (or current) into frequency,
i.e., they output a
train of pulses or a square wave whose frequency is proportional to the
voltage present at the input. V-F converters, or VFC's, usually
consist of an input amplifier, an oscillator system of high precision,
and a high-current output circuit. The VFC output tracks the input
signal and responds to its changes directly, and can provide full-scale
frequencies of one or more MHz.
Frequency-to-Voltage (F-V) Converters
are devices that convert frequency into voltage, i.e., they output an
analog voltage or current that's proportional to the frequency of the
signal at the input. F-V converters, or FVC's, can accept a wide
variety of periodic signals. An FVC may consist of an integrator
for its input circuit, whose output serves as the input to a comparator.
time the integrator output reaches the comparator threshold,
the output of the comparator: 1) resets the integrator and 2) triggers a one-shot or monostable multivibrator
which generates the pulse. A higher input voltage to the integrator
causes the threshold of the comparator to be reached more quickly,
resulting in a higher frequency at which the pulses are generated.
are devices that, upon the command of a logic control signal, sample an
input analog signal and hold the instantaneous value of the sampled
signal for subsequent conversion or processing. SHA's, which are
primarily used in data acquisition systems, are basically analog memory
devices that consists of an input amplifier or buffer, an energy storage
device (a capacitor), an output amplifier, and switching circuits.
are devices that can measure the energy consumption of an external
circuit. Energy meter IC's facilitate the sampling of the voltage
across and the current through a circuit, as well as the conversion of these
sampled quantities into digital data. These data are then used by an
on-chip processor to compute the product of the digitized voltage and
current signals, which is proportional to the instantaneous power of the
metered circuit. The 'power' data collected over time translate to the
energy consumed by the circuit. Calibration ensures that the
outputs of these energy metering IC's provide accurate readings of
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