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Materials Used in Semiconductor Manufacturing (Page 2)                          

 

     

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Other Elements Used

   

Boron, symbol B, atomic number 5, atomic group 13 or IIIA, atomic weight 10.81, is a hard, brittle, semi-metallic element used as a dopant in semiconductor devices.  It is classified as an 'acceptor' when used as dopant for Si devices, given that its atom has one less valence electron compared to the Si atom that it replaces (B has 3 valence electrons while Si has 4).  This results in a vacancy of electron which is known as a 'hole'.  The resulting excess 'holes' make the material 'p-type.'

    

Germanium, symbol Ge, atomic number 32, atomic group 14 or IVA, atomic weight 72.59, is a grayish white semi-metallic element with a melting temperature of 958 deg C. It was actually the original semiconductor material used to fabricate diodes and transistors. However, the low band gap of Ge (0.66 eV) results in relatively large leakage currents in its reverse-biased p-n junctions.

  

Lead, symbol Pb, atomic number 82, atomic group 14 or IVA, atomic weight 207.20, is one of the two major components of solder used in finishing the external leads of the IC package.  The other major component of solder is Tin, or Sn.

  

Phosphorus, symbol P, atomic number 15, atomic group 15 or VA, atomic weight 30.974, is a non-metallic element used as a dopant in semiconductor devices.  It is classified as a 'donor' when used as dopant for Si devices, given that its atom 'donates' or gives up one of its 5 valence electrons when it replaces a Si atom, which only has 4 valence electrons.  The resulting excess electrons make the material 'n-type.'

  

Tin, symbol Sn, atomic number 50, atomic group 14 or IVA, atomic weight 118.69, is one of the two major components of solder used in finishing the external leads of the IC package.  The other major component of solder is Lead, or Pb. 

  

Other Materials Used (alphabetically arranged)

  

Alloy 42.  An alloy used for manufacturing leadframes, usually for ceramic packages such as the CerDIP.  It is composed of about 57.7% Fe, 41% Ni, 0.8% Mn, and 0.5% Co.  Its thermal coefficient of expansion is 4.3 ppm/deg C.

  

Borophosposilicate Glass (BPSG). A compound used as interlayer dielectric in integrated circuits for isolating conductive lines and components from each other.

  

Gallium Arsenide (GaAs). A dark gray crystalline solid composed of gallium and arsenic used as substrate semiconductor material for building integrated circuits.  GaAs has an energy gap of 1.35 eV, which is higher than the 1.11 eV of Si.  Energy gap is the amount of energy needed for an electron to jump from the valence band into the conduction band.  This is the reason why GaAs devices can operate at higher temperatures than Si devices - they are less prone to exhibit thermally-induced noise and leakage.

  

Kovar A vacuum-melted, low-expansion alloy used for manufacturing leadframes, usually for ceramic packages such as the CerDIP.  It is composed of about 53.48% Fe, 29% Ni, 17% Co, 0.2% Si, 0.3% Mn, and 0.02%C.  It melts at 1450 deg C, and has a resistivity of 490 microohm-mm.  

   

Platinum silicide (PtSi).  PtSi found a popular use in silicon integrated circuits as a highly reliable contact metallization between the silicon substrate and the upper metal layers.  PtSi is formed using a self-aligned process, making it  very reproducible and resulting in a very clean interface with silicon. A diffusion barrier metal such as Ti/Pt is often deposited over the silicide before the final metal layer such as Al is placed on top of the barrier metal..

                                                                                               

Some Process Gases and Chemicals Used

in Semiconductor Manufacturing

Acetic Acid

CH3COOH

Acetone

(CH3)2CO

Ammonium Fluoride

NH4F

Ammonium Hydroxide

NH4OH

Buffered Oxide Etchant (BOE)

NH4F, HF

Chrome Etch

KMnO4, Na3PO4

Chromium Trioxide/HF/Water

CrO3, HF, H2O

Chromium Trioxide/HF/Water

CrO3, HF, H2O

Chromium Trioxide/Phos/Water

CrO3, H3PO4, H2O

Glass Etch

NH4F, CH3COOH

Hydrochloric Acid

HCl

Hydrofluoric Acid

HF

Hydrogen Peroxide

H2O2

Isopropyl Alcohol

CH3CHOHCH3

M-Etch

HF, HNO3, CH3COOH

Methyl Alcohol

CH3OH

Methyl Ethyl Ketone

CH3COCH2CH3

Nitric Acid

HNO3

Phosphoric Acid

H3PO4

Poly Etch

HF, HNO3, NH4F

Potassium Hydroxide (Solution, Pellets)

KOH

Pre-Evap Etch

NH4F, (NH4)3PO4

Sodium Hydroxide (Solution, Pellets)

NaOH

Sulfuric Acid

H2SO4

Xylene

C6H4

Polysilicon Polycrystalline silicon, or polysilicon, is used in integrated circuits as a conductor, resistor, or MOS gate metallization.

  

Sichrome (SiCr).  A compound used for fabricating thin film resistors on an integrated circuit.  SiCr resistors are often trimmed to the final resistance values using a laser beam  after deposition.

   

Silicon dioxide (SiO2).  Silicon dioxide is used mainly as an inter-layer dielectric to electrically isolate conductive layers of the integrated cirucit  from each other.  It is also used as a mask or capping layer.  Silicon dioxide may be deposited with dopants, in which case it may serve purposes other than those mentioned above.   

    

Silicon nitride (Si3N4).  Silicon nitride is an amorphous dielectric often used as the topmost or final passivating layer of an integrated circuit, mainly because it offers excellent protection against corrosion and mechanical damage. It's a good barrier against moisture and sodium diffusion, which is why it is highly preventive of corrosion.  It also has a high tensile strength and resistivity. 

     

Spin-On Glass (SOG). A glass compound deposited on the surface of a wafer for planarization of the wafer.

              

Titanium silicide (TiSi2). TiSi2 is the most widely used silicide for the salicide (self-aligned silicide) process, having the lowest resistivity (13-17 mohm-cm) among refractory metal silicides. Its melting point is 1540 deg C.

              

Titanium Tungsten (Ti/W).  A compound used as barrier metal under the Al metal line to prevent the formation of Si nodules on the surface of the metal as a result of interdiffusion between the Si and Al atoms.  The TiW layer also provides additional conduction for electricity.

     

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