Impurities in Silicon and their Properties  

        

Table 1 lists elements that can act as dopants or impurities in silicon as well as their relevant properties.

  

Table 1. Silicon Impurities and their Properties

Dopant Type Tetrahedral Radius (angstroms) Misfit Factor Acceptor Level, distance from valence band (eV) Donor Level, distance from conduction band (eV)
As n 1.18 0 - 0.049
P n 1.1 0.068 - 0.044
Sb n 1.36 0.153 - 0.039
Al p 1.26 0.068 0.057 -
B p 0.88 0.254 0.045 -
Ga p 1.26 0.068 0.065 -
In d 1.44 0.22 0.16 -
Ag d 1.52 0.29 0.89 0.79
Au d 1.5 0.272 0.57 0.76
Cu d 1.28 - 0.24, 0.37, 0.52 -
Mo d - - 0.3 -
Ni d 1.24 - 0.21, 0.76 -
O d - - - 0.16
Pt d - - 0.42, 0.92 0.85
Ti d - - 0.26 -
Zn d - - 0.31, 0.56 -
Fe d 1.26 - - -

            

Type d means 'deep impurity'.

            

Reference:  Sorab K. Ghandhi, VLSI Fabrication Principles, Wiley-Interscience

       

See Also:  DiffusionIon Implant

     

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